Text type/Genre/Jenis Teks juga didefinisikan sebagai ”the ways that we get things done through language – the ways we exchange information, and knowlegde and interact socially”. Genre juga diartikan sebagai “proses sosial yang bertahap dan berorientasi pada tujuan”.
Dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris di Indonesia baik di tingkat SMA maupun SMP yang menggunakan kurikulum 2013, materi dikelompokkan menjadi materi jenis teks (genre), teks fungsional pendek (short functional text) dan teks transaksional dan interpersonal (transactional and interpersonal text).
Untuk tingkat SMP, text type (genre) yang diajarkan antara lain:
- Procedure text
- Descriptive text
- Recount text
- Narrative text
- Report text
Sedangkan untuk pada tingkat SMA / SMK, materi yang diajarkan adalah seluruh jenis text yang diajarkan pada tingkat SMP ditambah text berikut ini:
- Spoof text
- Analytical Exposition text
- Hortatory Exposition text
- News Item text
- Explanation text
- Discussion text
- Review text
Selain materi jenis text diatas, diajarkan pula materi Teks Fungsional Pendek (Short Functional Text). Teks Fungsional Pendek memiliki arti dan tujuan sosial tertentu untuk dipergunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Text ini tidak memiliki struktur teks dalam bentuk paragraf-paragaf seperti dalam text types/genre text. Teks fungsional digunakan untuk informasi sehari-hari. Hal ini disebut fungsional karena membantu Kita melakukan sesuatu dalam kehidupan sehari- hari. Sebagai contoh, apabila ingin mengumumkan suatu hal penting untuk sekelompok orang, maka Kita harus mengerti cara mengumumkannya.
Adapun berbagai macam short Functional Text dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris antara lain:
- Greeting Card
- Short Message
- Dan lain-lain
Berdasar kamus Webster, paragraf adalah:a : a subdivision of a written composition that consists of one or more sentences, deals with one point or gives the words of one speaker, and begins on a new usually indented lineb : a short composition or note that is complete in one paragraphBerdasar pengertiannya, paragraf adalah kumpulan kalimat terkait satu sama lain dalam satu topik. Paragraf yang baik membantu pembaca dalam mengikuti tulisan. Anda memiliki ide-ide yang fantastis, tetapi jika ide-ide yang tidak disajikan dalam cara yang baik, maka, Anda akan kehilangan pembaca Anda dan gagal untuk mencapai tujuan Anda secara tertulis.Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan adalah menjaga satu ide untuk satu paragraf. Jika Anda mulai memiliki ide baru, itu termasuk dalam paragraf baru. Cara sederhana untuk mengetahui apakah Anda berada di topik yang sama yaitu. Anda dapat memiliki satu ide dan memberikan beberapa kalimat pendukung dalam satu paragraf.Elemen paragrafUntuk menjadi paragraf yang efektif, harus berisi masing-masing sebagai berikut: kesatuan dalam organisasi, koherensi, kalimat utama dan kalimat penjelas.Kesatuan organisasi yaitu seluruh kalimat harus dalam satu topik dalam setiap paragraf.Koherensi adalah sifat yang membuat paragraf dengan mudah dimengerti untuk pembaca. Kalimat satu dengan kalimat yang lain saling berhubungan. Topik kalimat adalah kalimat yang menunjukkan secara umum ide atau tesis paragraf). Cara mudah untuk memastikan Anda memahami topik paragraf adalah untuk menempatkan kalimat topik di awal paragraf.Selanjutnya dalam satu paragraf yang baik, karakteristiknya adalah adanya pengembangan dari paragraf itu sendiri.
Contoh Procedure Text
HOW TO MAKE SAMBAL TERASI
Sambal is used as a side dish for an Indonesian mostly. They add sambal to the dish to raise appetite. The most popular one is sambal terasi (dried shrimp paste sambal). Here is the way how to make it.
- 70 gr bird eye chilies
- 5 pieces red chilies, deseeded
- 1 teaspoon terasi k.a dried shrimp paste, toasted
- 3 tomatoes, remove the skin and chop
- Grated coconut sugar, substitute for palm sugar to taste
- Salt to taste
- Grind bird eye chilies and red chilies using grinder machine into smooth paste, add little water to make the thing keep turning set aside.
- Meanwhile heat the oil in the pan over medium heat, add in the ground chili, stir about 25 minutes or until the chilies are cooked
- Add chopped tomatoes into pieces with a sharp knife tomatoes are really dissolved.
- Add grated coconut sugar and toasted terasi (dried shrimp paste), keep stirring until all ingredients are well blended
- Season with sea salt then continue to stir until the sambal turn to a color –slightly deep red and aromatic for about 2 minutes.
- Remove from the heat and let it cool refrigerating.
Contoh Descriptive Text
Tanah Lot Temple
Tanah Lot Temple is located in coastal side of Beraban countryside, Kediri sub district and Tabanan Regency. It is situated in 30 Km in west side of Denpasar town and about 11 Km in south side of Tabanan town. The temple is built on the rock with 3 acre size and reachable in a few minute by walk, because it is just 20 meters from the coastal lip.
This temple is very famous among tourist destinations in Bali with spectacular view of sunset. At some nooks of coral reef around Tanah Lot Temple there are holy tame snake in black and white color where according to the local society believe that it as a deity property and as the guard of the temple from the bad influence.
The word of Tanah Lot is consisted of two words that are Tanah word interpreted as a reef looking like gili or isle. Lot or Lod word has meaning the sea. So Tanah Lot is meaning the small island floating on the sea. The location is now called as Tanah Lot has been used at a Megalithic period as a place that looked into holy, proven from the existence of menhir.
The function of this temple can be realized from the function of the main temple building which is located in the temple main area. In this place, there is a main temple to worship the god in form of Dewa Baruna or Bhatara Segara, the sea power. The media of worship to this god is the temple building with 5 storied meanwhile the 3 storied temple building in north part of this area is purposing to worship to Dang Hyang Nirartha.
Contoh Recount Text
My first flight for 2012 with Kang Guru took me to Jakarta on Thursday evening, January 23rd. It was just a matter of booking into my hotel and actually starting to write some articles for the March 2012 KGI magazine.
On Friday morning I met with Luke O’Neill, Counsellor Education at AusAID in Jakarta for a chat about KGI in general. Luke has been with AusAID in Jakarta for quite a while but this was the first time we had a chance to chat over a coffee. After the meeting I returned to the hotel and continued working on my parts of the March magazine. In the late afternoon I headed for BlitzMegaplex in Grand Indonesia Jakarta to do a few interviews for the March magazine.
I met with Marcus and Simon, two young journalism students from Australia. They, along with 31 other journalists, are here in Indonesia for three weeks doing internships at a variety of media offices around the city. Marcus and Simon are based at the Australian Embassy while others are working in organizations such as Tempo, MetroTV, RRI, Radio 68H, Jakarta Globe and The Jakarta Post.
On Friday night, I attended the official opening of the 2012 Australian Film Festival. Celebrated Indonesian film-maker and Australian alumni Mira Lesmana and Australian Embassy Charge d’Affaires Louise Hand launched Dreaming Stories, the Australian Indigenous Cultural Festival.
On Saturday I went to Cipinas to meet with Pak Rohman, an Endeavour Award alumni from 2008. He works at the museum in the Cipanas Palace and went to Australia last year to study museum techniques such as storage and preservation of artifacts. He worked together with staff at the Australian Museum in Sydney along with 5 other palace staff members. Pak Rohman loved Australia. The Trip to Cipinas was a long one with so many other cars on the road as Jakartans headed for Puncak for the long weekend.
Contoh Narrative Text
Once, there was a king of mice. He lived inside a banyan tree in a forest. He loved the tree as his home. He lived there happily.
One day, a poor woodcutter wanted to cut down the banyan tree. The king of the mice was frightened so he begged the woodcutter to leave the tree standing. In result, he would give the woodcutter a gold every day. The woodcutter agreed.
Every evening, the king of the mice gave a piece of gold to the woodcutter. The gold was taken out from the roots of the banyan tree. The woodcutter was happy and took the gold home.
After a few days, the woodcutter’s wife asked him, “Where does the gold come from?” So he replied, “The king of the mice gives me the golds from under the roots of the tree.” “Oh, you are stupid!” his wife said and suggested. “Why don’t you cut down the tree and take the golds all away?” The woodcutter would do as his wife said.
The following day, the woodcutter cut down the banyan tree. Unfortunately, he did not find any gold there instead the king of the mice had run away and crept up to the woodcutter’s house. The king of the mice took back all the golds.
Contoh Report Text
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, and are known for their role in pollination and for producing honey and beeswax. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in nine recognized families though many are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants.
Bees have a long proboscis (a complex “tongue”) that enables them to obtain the nectar from flowers. They have antennae almost universally made up of 13 segments in males and 12 in females, as is typical for the super family. Bees all have two pairs of wings, the hind pair being the smaller of the two; in a very few species, one sex or caste has relatively short wings that make flight difficult or impossible, but none are wingless.
The smallest bee is Trigona minima, a stingless bee whose workers are about 2.1 mm (5/64″) long. The largest bee in the world is Megachile pluto, a leafcutter bee whose females can attain a length of 39 mm (1.5″). Members of the family Halictidae, or sweat bees, are the most common type of bee in the Northern Hemisphere, though they are small and often mistaken for wasps or flies.
Demikian jenis -jenis teks atau Genre Text sebagai gambaran awal, selanjutnya dapat dipelajari masing-masing teks dan bagaimana menyusunya.
(Sumber GP Bing SMP KK- A 1)